Importance of DNA Sequencing in Biotechnology

Biotechnology

Biotechnology is a wide discipline that harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies that help in improving the health and lives of the people.”

Structure of DNA

In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick put forward their double-helix model of DNA, which is composed of two strands of nucleotides coiled around each other, linked together by hydrogen bonds and running in opposite directions. Each strand is composed of four complementary nucleotides — adenine (A), cytosine ©, guanine (G), and thymine (T) — with an A on one strand always paired with T on the other, and C always paired with G.

DNA Sequencing

DNA sequencing is the mechanism to determine the sequence of nucleic acids that are the basic units of DNA molecules. DNA sequencing provides info about how nucleotide bases are arranged in a fragment of DNA. Each individual and organism has a specific nucleotide base sequence so everyone has a different DNA sequence. This sequence tells scientists the kind of genetic information that is carried in a particular DNA segment and helps in different aspects of the welfare of humankind.

Importance of DNA sequencing in biotechnology

In Agricultural Biotechnology

In the agriculture industries, the identification of GMO species can be possible with the help of DNA sequencing methods. Any minor variations or mutations in the plant genome can be detected with the help of DNA sequencing. This will help in the identification of different diseases in plants and helps to make pathogen-free plants.

In Animal Biotechnology

In Medical Biotechnology

In Forensic Biotechnology

In Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

In Microbial Biotechnology

Microbial genome analysis relies strictly on DNA sequencing technology. Knowledge of DNA polymorphisms improves the understanding of microbial genetic specificity. The microbial genome shows various sequence differences or polymorphisms. Microbial DNA polymorphisms are the basis for explaining the specificity of phenotypes, evolution, and taxonomy.

In COVID19 Pandemic

Conclusion

Knowledge of the sequence of a DNA segment has many uses. The arrangement of nucleotides in DNA determined the sequence of amino acids in proteins, which in turn helped determine the function of a protein. It helps in basic biological research, in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology, and biological systematics. Comparing healthy and mutated DNA sequences can diagnose different diseases including various cancers, characterize antibody repertoire, and can be used to guide patient treatment.

Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology is one of the top M.Sc & B.Sc Biotechnology colleges in Jaipur, Rajasthan.